Monday, January 30, 2017

Imperialism and Nationalism History

Imperialism and Nationalism
To keep their factories producing, the industrialized countries needed many kinds of raw materials, such as wood and rubber. To get these materials, European countries began colonies in Africa and Asia. As time passed, the Europeans took control of more lands in the two continents to protect their trading interests. Soon the European countries began to compete with one another to add more lands to their colonial empires. Many people in Asia and Africa came under the rule of European governments. Such empire building is called imperialism.

As imperialism grew, so did another idea nationalism.
Nationalism is loyalty to one's nation or country, based on religious or cultural ties. In the 1800s, nationalism brought some people together, but it also created many conflicts.

European leaders began to build up their nations' armies and create alliances with each other.

The alliances were not strong enough to keep peace in Europe, however. When Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the future ruler of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated on June 28,1914, it started what is known as World War I.

What effect did imperialism and nationalism have on the world's people?

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Worlds Collide History

Worlds Collide
Increasing contact between cultures brought new trade goods and new ways of thinking to many peoples. This contact, however, also brought conflict.

One important conflict arose between the people of Europe and the Seljuk (SELjook) Turks, a Muslim people from southwestern Asia. Even though western Europe was no longer part of a single empire, most Europeans still felt connected to one another. They shared the same religion Christianity. Beginning in 1095, Christian Europeans joined together to fight the Muslim Seljuk Turks, who had captured the city of Jerusalem. This city was holy to Christians, Muslims, and Jews. The battles that were fought to free Jerusalem from Muslim control are known as the crusades.

The crusades caused much loss of life for both Christians and Muslims. Yet they also brought the two peoples closer together. During the crusades the Christians and the Muslims learned about each other's ways of life and resources. Europeans returned from the crusades with spices, silks, and other goods from Asia. A demand for these goods developed, and trade began between Europe and Asia.

As trade continued, Europeans began to look for new water routes to Asia. Christopher Columbus was sure that he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. On October 12,1492, he landed on the island of San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea. Columbus believed that he had reached the Indies, in Asia, so he called the island's people Indians. Columbus made three more trips, never realizing that he had reached the Americas.

After Columbus's voyages several other Europeans traveled to, explored, and settled in the Americas. The Europeans and the native peoples introduced each other to new foods, animals, ideas, and ways of doing things. For example, the Europeans learned about corn, beans, and potatoes.

The peoples of the Americas saw cattle and horses for the first time. Today, historians call the movement of people, animals, plants, and ideas between Europe and the Americas the Columbian exchange.

In the Americas some Europeans created huge farms called plantations. Others started gold and silver mines. Plantation and mine owners turned to the continent of Africa for the many workers they needed. Africans were enslaved and brought to the Americas to work.

Slavery had long been known in Africa. Enemies captured in wars between rival African peoples were often enslaved. They usually regained their freedom at a later time. Slavery in the Americas was different. Slaves in America were thought of as property, to be bought and sold as their owners wished. A slave in the Americas had little hope of ever becoming free.

The sale of human life was part of a system called the triangle trade. First, traders sailed from Europe to Africa with iron, cloth, guns, and liquor. In Africa the traders exchanged these goods for enslaved people. Next, during what is sometimes called the Middle Passage, the enslaved people were carried across the Atlantic to the Americas. There the traders sold the Africans for products from the plantations. The traders took these goods back to Europe, completing the triangle.

In time many people in the Americas began to feel that slavery was cruel and wrong. However, it was not until the 1860s that slavery ended in much of the Americas.

How did European settlement in the Americas affect the peoples of Africa?

Thursday, January 26, 2017

What way were the American and the French Revolution a like ?

A Call for Freedom
As people moved from place to place, their ways of thinking changed. The thoughts of many people began to focus on freedom.

In Britain in 1215, a group of nobles presented King John with a list of 63 demands and forced him to sign it. This document came to be called the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter." By signing it, King John agreed that he, too, had to obey the laws of the land. The Magna Carta was a first step in moving power from rulers to citizens.

By the 1700s, a new time of thought called the Enlightenment was changing people's ideas about art, science, religion, and law. People began to believe that governments should protect the rights of individuals.

In the British colonies in North America, Thomas Jefferson was well aware of the ideas of the Enlightenment. Jefferson and other colonists wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776. In this document the colonists declared themselves independent of Britain. The British, they felt, did not care about the rights of the American colonists.

To win independence from Britain, the colonists fought a long war. That war is remembered as the American Revolution. In 1781 the former British colonies in North America became the United States of America. The first United States President, George Washington, was elected in 1789. The creation of the United States led other peoples to dream of greater freedom.

In France, many people suffered under the French system of government. Peasants and workers paid heavy taxes but had little voice in how the government was run. In 1789 the middle class of French society created its own government body called the National Assembly. Soon the French government was overthrown. By 1793 the monarch, Louis (LOOee) XVI, and Queen Marie Antoinette (an»twuh«NET) had been executed. France had become a republic.

By 1800, however, France was once again controlled by a single person the leader of the French army, Napoleon Bonaparte.

In the early 1800s the desire for freedom had spread to Mexico, Central America, and South America. People in these places fought for independence from their
European rulers. By 1830 many independent countries had formed in these regions.

In what way were the American Revolution and the French Revolution alike?

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

History Government, and Economy (A World of Trade)

History Government, and Economy
During the centuries that followed the Roman Empire, people became more aware of other peoples and other places. Peoples who lived far from each other began trading and affected each other's ways of life.

A World of Trade
Between 500 and 1500, empires based on trade grew up around the world. You have read that the Roman Empire split into two parts. The western part fell to Germanic invaders. In contrast, the eastern part became the Byzantine (BIH'Zubin*teen) Empire, beginning in the 500s. Its capital, Constantinople, became a crossroads for travel, trade, and the exchange of technology and ideas.

In the 600s another empire the Muslim Empire rose in southwestern Asia. This empire, which was based on the religion of Islam, grew to include Egypt and Persia as well as ancient Arabia.

Farther east in Asia lay still another large empire, the Mongol Empire. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongol people conquered China in the 1200s. Genghis Khan's sons and grandsons continued to claim more lands. In just 50 years the Mongol Empire spread across much of Asia. The European explorer Marco Polo visited China during the time of Mongol control. After Polo's return to Europe, reports of his travels caused much interest in China. Soon European merchants began searching for ways to trade with Asia.

The people of Africa, too, took part in world trade and empire building. Between the years 700 and 1500, powerful kingdoms based on trade developed iin western Africa.
The Ghana (GAH»nuh) Empire ruled over many peoples of western Africa. This empire was followed by the Mali Empire, which, in turn, was replaced by the Songhay (SAWNG»hy) Empire. Contact with the Muslim Empire brought many changes to the peoples of western Africa, including the introduction of Islam.

Meanwhile, unknown to the peoples of Asia, Africa, and Europe, the Aztecs and the Incas were conquering their neighbors to build empires in the Americas. All through the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire, native peoples of the Americas traded goods and ideas.

What important empires rose up in the world between the years 500 and 1500?

What is a metropolitan area?

Cities of the World
Cities are not a new development. As long ago as 3500 B.C., the ancient Sumerians built the world's first cities. Today only the remains of those cities can be found. Some ancient cities, however, are still alive with people and activity. Rome, in Italy, has grown from its ancient beginnings to a modern city with a population of about 2,800,000 people. The ruins of its early times stand side by side with its modern buildings. In North America, Mexico City is built over the ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan.

History does not run so deep in other cities. Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, is only about 50 years old. The sprawling city of Miami, Florida, was just a small settlement in 1895.

Today many cities have grown amazingly large. Japan, a very small country, has the world's largest city Tokyo. About 27 million people live and work in this city Other very large cities around the world include Buenos Aires (BWAY»nohs EYE*rays) in Argentina; Shanghai (shang*HY) in China; New York City, New York, and Los Angeles, California, in the United States; and Lagos (LAY*gahs) in Nigeria.
Many large cities have areas around them that have been developed as well. These areas where many people live are called suburbs. A city and its surrounding suburbs make up a metropolitan area.

A metropolitan area usually has at least 50,000 people.
Some metropolitan areas are so close to one another that they blend together. The term megalopolis (meh»guh»LAH»puh*luhs) describes a region where this has happened. One megalopolis stretches from Boston, Massachusetts, to Washington, D.C., on the east coast of the United States.

What is a metropolitan area?

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

World Religions History

World Religions
Many of the world's major religions had their roots in ancient times. The Israelites in southwestern Asia were the first to practice Judaism. Today about 14 million Jewish people live in all parts of the world. Almost 6 million Jews live in North America, many of them in the United States.
Many people consider the country of Israel to be the homeland of the Jewish people.
More than 80 percent of Israel's 5 million people are Jewish.

The beginnings of Hinduism and Buddhism can be traced to the continent of Asia. Most of the world's 322 million Buddhists live in Asia, but Buddhists can be found in most parts of the world.

Almost 1 million people in North America alone follow the Buddhist religion.
The Hindu religion is followed mainly in Asia, where about 790 million Hindus live. Another 6 million Hindus live in other parts of the world.

The religion of Christianity has grown since the days of Jesus Christ and his early followers. Today almost 2 billion Christians live around the world. More than 700 million Christians live in North and South America. In the rest of the world, Christians include about 361 million Africans, 303 million Asians, and 555 million Europeans.

The religion of Islam (is»LAHM) is practiced by over 1 billion people. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. About half of all Muslims live in southern, central, and southeastern Asia. Many others live in Europe. In Africa, Muslims make up about half of the total population. About 6 million Muslims live in the United States.
Muslims believe that a man named Muhammad (moh»HA»muhd), born in A.D. 570, was the last in a series of messengers from God. Among the first messages that Muhammad gave people was that there is only one God, or Allah in Arabic. The
messages of Muhammad form the holy book of Islam, known as the Qur'an (kuh»RAN).

Muslims follow five basic acts of worship, known as the five pillars. The first pillar is belief in one God, and that Muhammad is the last of many messengers from God.
The second pillar is the Muslim practice of praying five times a day and visiting a mosque, or house of worship, on Fridays. The third pillar is the act of giving a fixed part of yearly savings to the needy. The fourth pillar is the Muslim practice of fasting, or not eating and drinking, in the daytime during Ramadan (RAH»muh»dahn), the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.

The fifth pillar is the making of at least one pilgrimage, or religious visit to Mecca, a holy Islamic city in Saudi Arabia. All Muslims face toward the city of Mecca when they pray.

What five religions that began long ago are still followed today?

What are some of the cultures of Asia?

World Cultures
Cultures around the world have very different beliefs, customs, and languages. The almost 4 billion people who live in Asia belong to many different cultures. Japanese, Chinese, Arab, Israeli, Indian, Turkish, and Tibetan are only a few of these cultures. Many of these cultures have continued unchanged in the same areas for centuries. Thousands of different languages and dialects are spoken in Asian lands.

Africa is home to more than 750 million people and at least 800 different cultures. In northern Africa, many people are Arab or have Arab ancestors. South of the Sahara, most people are descendants of native Africans, though some are descendants of European and Asian settlers. Today almost
900
 languages are spoken in Africa. Among these are many African Bantu languages. Ever since the time of the European colonies in Africa, English, French, and Afrikaans  a language created by early Dutch settlers have also often been spoken.

Europe's 500 million people also belong to many different cultural groups. Some, such as the French, the Greeks, the Italians, and the Germans, have their own country. Not all the different peoples of Europe have their own countries, however, and in some cases this has led to conflict. In the United Kingdom, for example, fighting has often flared between the English and the people of Northern Ireland.

North America and South America have been affected by several cultures. Early European migrations led to large European populations in both places. Both places also have rich native cultures.

In North America, many people have British ancestors. Many others have an African heritage. In South America and Latin America, many people have Spanish ancestors.
Today the cultures of the world are in closer contact than ever before because of improved communication and transportation. In some ways many of the world's cultures are blending. At the same time, many are seeking ways to preserve their own heritages.

What are some of the cultures of Asia?

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