Friday, January 6, 2017

Rome Becomes an Empire and Who became Rome's first emperor?

The Roman Empire
After Julius Caesar's death a new leader rose up to rule :he Roman lands. This new leader brought many different peoples into the Roman culture. Over the next few hundred years, more than 75 million people came to call themselves Romans.

Rome Becomes an Empire
After the death of Julius Caesar, the Roman senate and Caesar's supporters waged a civil war. Caesar's grand- nephew, Octavian (ahk»TAY»vee»uhn), and Mark Antony, a Roman general, led Caesar's armies into battle. After defeating the senate's army, Octavian and Antony gained control of all Roman lands. Octavian claimed the western part of the empire. Antony claimed the eastern part, made up of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. This division did not last long, however. Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen, and they planned to set up their own empire. Octavian declared war on Antony and Cleopatra.

In 31 B.C. Octavian and Antony met in a great sea battle near Actium in Greece. Octavian won and became the ruler of all Roman lands.
In 27 B.C. the Roman senate gave Octavian the title Augustus. The title means "respected one" or "holy one." Octavian has been known ever since as Augustus Caesar, or simply Augustus.

Upon gaining control of Rome, Augustus boasted,

I freed the Roman Republic from the control of those who assassinated Julius Caesar.... The Roman senate ... and all the Roman people have called me 'Father of the Country.

Augustus was Rome's first true emperor, but he never used this title. He adopted the title princeps, meaning "first citizen," instead. Augustus knew that the idea of a republic was important to the Roman people, so he made sure his government seemed to be representative. But in fact, the Roman Republic ended when Augustus's long rule began.

Who became Rome's first emperor?

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