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Sunday, January 13, 2013

Use Latitude and Longitude Skills

Use Latitude and Longitude

1 • Why Learn This Skill?
When you study world history it is important to know exactly where places in the world are located. To show location, mapmakers use imaginary lines called lines of latitude and lines of longitude. These lines are drawn as a grid on maps and globes. This grid is much like the grids that archaeologists use to divide their dig sites. Archaeologists' grids help people know where artifacts were found. Similarly, grids of lines of latitude and longitude help you know where places are on Earth.

2.    Lines of Latitude
The lines that run east and west on a map or globe are lines of latitude.
Lines of latitude are also called parallels (PAIR»uh»lelz) because they are parallel, or always the same distance from each other. Parallel lines never meet.
Lines of latitude are measured in degrees north and south from the equator, which is labeled 0°, or zero degrees. Parallels north of the equator are marked N for north latitude. This means they are in the Northern Hemisphere. Parallels south of the equator are marked S for south latitude. This means they are in the Southern Hemisphere. The greater the number of degrees a parallel is, the farther north or south of the equator it is.

3.    Lines of Longitude
The lines that run north and south on a map or globe are lines of longitude. Lines of longitude are also called meridians.

Each meridian runs from the North Pole to the South Pole. Unlike parallels, which never meet, meridians meet at the poles. Meridians are farthest apart at the equator.
Meridians are numbered in much the same way as parallels. The meridian marked 0° is called the prime meridian.

It runs north and south through Greenwich near London in Britain. Lines of longitude west of the prime meridian are marked W for west longitude. They are in the Western Hemisphere. The meridians to the east of the prime meridian are marked E for east longitude. They are in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Eastern and Western hemispheres meet at the 180° meridian.

The 180° meridian runs exactly opposite to the prime meridian.

4 • Understand the Process
The map on page 63 shows some sites throughout the world where prehistoric art has been found. The map has both lines of latitude and lines of longitude drawn over it. These lines overlap each other to form a grid. The crossing lines of latitude and longitude make it possible to describe absolute, or exact, location.

Look at the map of Ancient Art Sites carefully. It shows every twentieth line 9    of latitude and every twentieth line of longitude. At either side of the map, find the line of latitude marked 40°S. Near the bottom of the map, find the line of longitude marked 60°W. Trace these lines with your fingers to the point where they Perito Moreno is not far from this point. Perito Moreno lies halfway between 20°S and 40°S and just east of 60°W. Using this information, you could say that the absolute location of Perito Moreno is 30°S, 58°W.

5 • Think and Apply
Use the map and what you
already know about latitude and longitude
to answer these questions:

A.    Which sites shown on the map lie between 0° and 40°E?
B.    Which line of latitude is closest to Monument Valley?
C.    Which site lies between 40°N and 60°N?
D.    Which line of longitude is closest to Lake Mungo?
E.    Which site is closest to the prime meridian? Which sites are closest to the equator?


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