About 5000 B.C., small farming villages of ancient Egypt grew up along the Nile River between the delta and the first cataract. As population increased, villages became towns with more buildings and land. Some towns became capitals of city-states called nomes. Often the leaders of the different nomes competed for control of power and wealth.
Over time, nomes joined together until by about 3500 B.C., there were two large kingdoms one in Upper Egypt and the other in Lower Egypt. These kingdoms were known as the "Two Lands." The rulers of each kingdom wanted to control all of Egypt.
By about 3000 B.C. Upper Egyptian kings had gained control of Lower Egypt. The Two Lands united as one. Ancient Egyptian legend says that Menes (MEE»neez) was the king who united Egypt.
Who really united the two kingdoms is not known. Some experts think that a king named Narmer may have brought the Two Lands together. In ancient artwork Narmer
is shown wearing a double crown that combines the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt.
The uniting of Egypt had an important result. It marked the beginning of the world's first nation-state, which lasted for 3,000 years.
Why was the uniting of Egypt important?